Getting there and away|
Most travellers to Palestine arrive via Tel Aviv (Lod) international airport in Israel. From there, regular shared buses (sherut) link to Jerusalem, 24 hours a day. The price is around 45 NIS per person. Gaza international airport in the Gaza strip has been destroyed and closed for several years.
Overland, there is one border crossing between Palestine and Jordan (King Hussein bridge, or Allenby bridge for Israel), controlled by the Israeli army. Two other crossings (one in the North, one in the South), link Israel with Jordan. From there on, one can go to the Occupied Palestinian Territories with public transport. the border between Egypt and the Gaza strip is not open for foreigners.
There are no specific visa formalities for Palestine. Since any international passage into the country is controlled by Israel, the Israeli rules apply, except of Gaza, for which a particular authorisation has to be delivered by the Israeli authorities (enquiries go through your embassy or consulate, the permit is quasi-unobtainable if you are not a journalist, diplomat or foreign aid worker with a specific mission in the Gaza strip).
An extensive, hectic, but well functiong and relatively cheap bus and shared taxi network operates in the West Bank and in Gaza.
Car rental can be done both with Israeli or Palestinian companies. The Israeli companies (and some Palestinian ones) have cars with yellow (Israeli) number plates, allowing you to drive both in territory under fully Israeli control and in Palestinian controlled territories. However, most if not all Israeli car rental agencies have insurances which do not cover you in Palestinian Authority Territory (the definition of this does not seem very clear, for sure they do cover in settlements around Jerusalem or on the Dead Sea). Driving such a car e.g. in Jericho means that you are not insured. And in case of an accident, that may have dramatic consequences. You can avoid this by hiring your car from a (more expensive) Palestinian rental agency in or around East-Jerusalem. Their cars (yellow numberplates also) often have two different insurances, one for Israel, one for the Westbank. Palestinian (private and rental) cars with green numberplates are not allowed on some settlers-only roads and not at all in Jerusalem or in Israel, they do however have the advantage of letting you pass more low-profile in certain sensitive areas.