Who needs a visa? How to get it? Embassies & Consulates, of the country abroad and in the country
Mongolian Embassy in Berlin
Special for people living in Germany: there are some Visa agencies in Berlin, who arrange your Visa for 18-40 euros, and the 30 day Visa fee for Shengen citizens (EU+Switzerland) is 35 Euro, visa are issued usually within a week, sameday service is availabel for +75. It's better do do this with an agency because there are no honorary consuls in the other cities.
Extension: if you wanna stay longer than 30 days it's mostly possible to get an extension if you have evidence that you may leave in time, e.G. return flight ticket or train ticket. This is done in the naturalization and immigration office and costs 3 US$ a day of extension. The extension procedure needs a handwritten application in english, 2 passport photos (can be obtained at place), a completed form, and a phone number. This procedure takes mostly 3-4 working days.
An other way is getting an official invitation, but this can be done only if you know some people in Mongolia or by the foreign affairs office of your country.
Visa for leaving Mongolia
This is said to be the hardest place in the world to get a russian visa. The only organizations in Mongolia that can write invitations is Legend tours and aeroflot, and the rumor says that the invitation letter has to be in original.
If you already have an invitation letter it is a little bit easier. The embassy is on peace ave, not far away from State department store. The opening hours for visa application is 14.00-15.00, but you´d better start queing at 13 to be sure to get there.
In 2006 the price for a tourist visa for swedish citicens was 53 dollar. If you go through Legend tours it will probably be the double.
In 2007 a new transit visa with a duration of 10 days was introduced. For this you need only a precise travel plan, but now it'S possible to do the UB->Moscow trip by train on a transit visa. The invitation is actually less difficult to get: book a hotel in Moscow, which is allowd to issue an invitation (beginning at 60$ a day), and you get it by email. This was at least accepted as a printout in 2006 and 2007.
Chinese Visa are easy to obtain in UB, but require some days of processing and additional fees. You won't have problems when you apply for not more than 30 days, being a Shengen citizen or american, and if you have a basic travel plan. You must enter China within 90 days.