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|Informatsioon järgneva kohta: Brazil|
Facts, Attractions, Transport, Food, Money, Visa, Travelogues, Nightlife, Culture, Links ...
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First of all...|
I would like you to take a look at a city called NATAL. It has a very beautiful coast. Lots of beaches, average temperature around 30 degrees celsius, ecotourism, trekking, camping... If you speak spanish, I have to tell you our mother tongue is portuguese although these are latin languages such as french and italian. Because of that, it might get easier to understand portuguese if you speak any of the languages above.
I also found a governmental site wich has so many informations... Actually, most of everything you would want to know.
MINISTÉRIO DAS RELAÇÕES EXTERIORES
For further information, don't hesitate in writing me at: laurinda
Portuguese navigator Pedro Alvares Cabral discovered Brazil in 1500. From then on, various export cycles dominated Brazil's economic development. The first of these cycles was based on the exportation of brazilwood, used to make dyes and paints. During the 17th century, Brazil became the world's largest producer of sugar. In this period, a large number of African slaves were brought to Brazil to work in the sugar cane plantations. Gold and diamonds eventually replaced sugar as the country's major export product.
By the second half of the 19th century, Brazil was deep in a new cycle with coffee as the major export. Today, coffee is still one of Brazil's major sources of income. The late 19th-century rubber boom also brought prosperity and development to the north of Brazil, previously ignored by the international economy.
When Napoleon invaded Portugal in the early 1800's, Dom João VI King of Portugal, fled to Brazil where the Portuguese court continued to run the empire. Ports were opened to international (mostly British) commerce, and the colony grew substantially. In 1789, one of Brazil's first movements for independence from Portugal was crushed. Its hero, Tiradentes, became a national symbol of liberty. Independence was finally proclaimed by Dom Pedro I (Dom João's son) in 1822. He became Brazil's first Emperor.
His son, Dom Pedro II. reigned for 49 years until 1889 when the country became a Republic. In 1888, slavery was abolished. In 1940 Brazil began a new phase characterized by industrial development.
At the same time, agricultural technology advanced giving further impetus to the industrial surge and accelerating financial expansion. In spite of a large and ever growing internal domestic market. Brazil continues to be a major exporter of agricultural products as well as manufactured items such as heavy machinery, shoes and steel products.
Occupying an area of 8,500,000 km2 and situated in a tropical region, Brazil has a diversity of environments, the product of geological history and recent human influence .These environments correspond, in principle, to the phytogeographic provinces described in the beginning of the 19th century by Carl F.P.von Martius, a botanist who also initiated the monumental "Flora Brasilienses". Despite having suffered alterations by human action, the standards are still accepted today, when modern techniques of remote sensoring monitor the Brazilian physical environment.
Brazil's botanical regions were called after the names which the indigenous, the Portuguese, and the first naturalists attributed to them. The Amazon Forest - the "Hiléia" of German naturalist von Humbolt, covers the states of Pará, Amazonas, Amapá, Acre, Rondônia and Roraima, and is also present in the neighbouring countries of Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. In Brazil it occupies approximately 3,5 million km2.
The Amazon basin is formed by large rivers of muddy, black or clear waters. Known for holding the largest bio-diversity in the world, the Amazon Forest is basically formed by "matas de terra firme" (dry land forests), which are out of the direct influence of the rivers, not suffering floods; "matas de várzea" (meadow forests), flooded by the muddy rivers in the rainy season; and the "matas de igapó" (igapó forests), almost permanently flooded by black rivers. There are patches of "cerrado" (savanna land) among the forests, as well as poor vegetation and grasslands over the sand patches.
There are thousands of endemic species of fish in the Amazon basin which contribute to the reproduction of riverside plants. The Amazonian endemism is known worldwide, being specially rich in primates, birds, butterflies, fish and other animals. Among others, stand out the "sagui-leãozinho" (a sagoin), the smallest primate in the world, the "preguiça real" (a sloth), the black agouti, the pacarana, the "peixe-boi" (cow-fish), the pink "boto" dolphin, the "uirapuru real" (a song bird of the family Pipriade) and the "galo-da-serra" (Rupicola rupicola).
The Amazon constitutes around 40% of the Brazilian territory. The colonisation process of this vast region needs an adequate policy of sustainable handling, which includes avoiding one of its great and current problems, the burnings. Currently under constant vigilance and monitored daily, they are one of the problems resulting from the colonisation process of the southern part of the Amazon, and from the need for the establishment of a land occupation policy.
THE NATION OF MEGADIVERSITY
Top Things to See and Do
BUSINESS AND LEISURE
CULINARY CULTURE -"FEIJOADA" - It is directly connected to the presence of black people in Brazilian land. As a result of a fusion European-feeding habits with the creativity of African slaves, it has become one of the symbols of our national culinary.
This process started by the time of gold findings in the São Vicente "Capitania" (an administrative division) by the turn of the XVII century. The beginning of mining activities in Brazil led to the creation of new "capitanias" and thus changed drastically Brazilian economy. Since then, the use of currency in trade, instead of the previously used produce such as cocoa and cotton, boosted the need for slave labor force, consequently increasing African black traffic and, therefore, its influence in our feeding habits.
In the gold mining area (States of Minas Gerais, Goiás, Tocantins and Mato Grosso), since slaves were all hired in the search of gold and diamonds, having no chance to care for their own food, provisions used to come from other areas (São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro state coast) on beasts of burden in troops. That is the origin of the also popular 'Feijão tropeiro" (a meal improvised by muleteers on their journeys), which adds to this strong national preference for dishes based on beans.
At that time, in Diamantina, slaves' food used to be basically made up of maize flour, beans and salt. So, beans with manioc flour or coarse maize flour, mixed before serving, turned into a traditional disk back then.
Shortly afterwards, meat was added to this dish, along with the admired Portuguese stew, which included assorted meats and vegetables, boiled all together, with the previously used beans, lard and flour. "Feijoada" was then created.
At present, this traditional Brazilian dish consists of black beans boiled with some pork (ear, tail, feet, etc.) with side orders of green kale fried with oil and garlic, white rice, manioc flour and pepper sauce.
Brazil's origins - the Indians with their reed flutes, the Portuguese with their singers and viola players, and the Africans with their many thrilling rhythms - make it a musical country. From the classical compositions of Villa-Lobos, to the soft sounds of bossa nova, to the driving beat of samba, Brazil has developed music of striking sophistication, quality and diversity.
When the Jesuit fathers first arrived in Brazil they found that the Indians performed ritual song and dances accompanied by rudimentary wind an percussion instruments. The Jesuits made use of the music to catechise the Indians by replacing th original words with religious ones using the Tupi language. They also introduced the Gregorian chant and taught the flute, bow instruments, and the clavichord. Music accompanied the sacramental ceremonies which were performed in village and church plazas.
African music was introduced during the colony's first century and was enriched by its contact with Iberian music. One of the most importar types of music used by the Negro slaves was the comic song-dance called Lundu. For a long time it was one of the typical popular musical forms and it was even sung in the Portuguese Court during the 19th century. In the second half of the 18th century and during the 19th century the sentimental love song called the modinha was popular and it was sung both in Brazil's salons and at the Portuguese Court. No one knows if the modinha was born in Brazil or in Portugal.
Capoeira, a ritualised, stylized, combat-dance, having its own music, and practiced primarily in the city of Salvador, Bahia, is a characteristically Brazilian expression of both dance and martial arts. It evolved from a fighting style that originated in Angola. In the early slave days there were constant fights between the blacks, and when the owner caught them at it, he had both sides punished. The slaves considered this unfair and developed a smoke screen of music and song to cover up actual fighting. Over the years this was refined into a highly athletic sport in which two contestants try to deliver blows using only their legs, feet, heels, and heads - hands are not allowed.
The combatants move in a series of swift cartwheels and whirling handstands on the floor. The musical ensemble that accompanies capoeira includes the berimbau, a bow-shaped piece of wood with a metal wire running from one end to the other. A painted gourd which acts like a sounding box is attached at the bottom of the berimbau. The player shakes the bow. While the seeds in the gourd rattle he strikes the taut wire with a copper coin which gives off a unique, moaning sound.
MORENA - THE COLORS AND RACES OF BRAZIL
There are three basic racial sources for the Brazilian people. To the original inhabitants (Indians) were added successive waves of Europeans (mainly Portuguese) and Africans (mostly from the sub-Saharan west coast). In the 16th century, the area which is now Brazil was inhabited by several hundred indigenous tribes who, while racially similar, spoke different languages and had different cultures. Groups speaking the Tupi and Guarani languages lived along the coast and in the adjoining hinterland and they established intermarriages with the Portuguese settlers. Many tribes speaking other languages (Gê, Arwak, and Karib), on the other hand, lived in the interior and they took longer to establish contact with the "outsiders". Today Brazil's native Indians number about 250,000. They are divided into roughly 200 groups and they speak some 180 different languages. The Indians live in vast areas (328,185 sq.miles [850,000 sq.km]), equal to ten percent of Brazil's total territory, which has been set aside for them by the Federal Government. In these areas, which total over three times the size of the United Kingdom, the Indians are free to preserve their life-style.
Starting in the middle of the 16th century, Africans belonging to the Bantu and to the Sudanic ethnic groups (a large proportion of the Sudanic group came from the Yoruba nation from what is today Nigeria and Benin) were brought to Brazil to work as slaves in the sugarcane industry, and later, in the gold and diamond mines and the coffee plantations. The integration process that had begun between the Europeans and the Indians rapidly spread to include the black slaves.
This racial mixing went on as Brazil began, at the end of the 19th century, to receive increasing numbers of immigrants from all over the world. Portugal remained the single most important source of migrants to Brazil, with Italy second, followed by Lebanon. In the first half of the 20th century, as a consequence of war or economic pressures, sizable contingents of immigrants came to Brazil from parts of western, central, and eastern Europe. In 1908, 640 immigrants came to Brazil from Japan. Because of the welcoming social environment, a Japanese migration trend was established. By 1969, 247,312 Japanese had emigrated to Brazil. Today Brazilians of Japanese descent are the largest such group outside Japan.
Interested??? Here I am:laurinda
Also, take a look at...
Consulate in USA
Embassy In London
Neighboring countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela
Hospitality Club Meetings
Unfortunatelly, there aren´t as many members as I would like to have but as soon as possible, we will have meetings, parties and everything we find fun!!!
HC members going to travel in this region
kvashonka: Hi, we are HC users from Moscow - kvashonka, kostenko and art27. We're going to hitchhike in this area in november! We would be happy to get any contacts from HC members of this area!
dimitris: Hello everyone. If you would like to share a little of your time with me in June (6-27), drop me a line. Hosting/coffee/caipirinha/ice cream/chat over a stroll invitations, aaaaall welcomed :-).
meyerchristoph: Hola a todos.
Ahora estoy viajando en Brasil. Me voy del sur hasta el Norte y al Amazonas. Tengo 6meses para todo Brasil.
Me alegre por todo contactos.
Luqman: Hi there Brazil, I am looking forward to travel down to the Brazil in the end of December in order to spend my holidays there and celebrate the new year there. I am expected to be there in the last week of December and will like to meet the HC members there, including discovering Brazil with them, finding out the interesting and wonderful destinations, to go out for food, music, cinema, morning and/or evening walks. I will also need to know what members shall be hosting me during my trip there in Rio and Sao for a month time. Please feel free to write me soonest possible. Thanking you in advance. Kind regards, Luqman
flooroverbeeke: Hello people in Brazil! I am traveling to Brazil on the 21st of December and will stay for three weeks. I fly to Natal, plan to celebrate christmas in Olinda and plan to celebrate New Years in Salvador. I would like to hang out (or stay) with some nice people during my trip. I like surfing, diving, hiking, dancing, yoga and relaxing on the beach. I'm open to any suggestions! Hope to hear from you soon! Warm regards, Floor
Edited by: nitocrispolanski on 18.02.2012 flooroverbeeke on 10.12.2007 Luqman on 09.12.2007 meyerchristoph on 08.12.2007 dimitris on 08.04.2007 neyrian on 09.09.2006 kvashonka on 18.08.2006 gardke on 17.05.2006 fachoalto on 05.04.2006 cbemergui on 06.09.2005 laurinda on 20.05.2004 laurinda on 21.04.2004 laurinda on 06.01.2004 laurinda on 05.01.2004
|Last postings about Brazil from other users
Of course there are beautiful beaches. But not only!! Take a few days to visit FORTALEZA. You will like it!
corcovado ( cristo ), beachs, sugar loaf ( pão de açucar ), go out for fun ( discoteke ),etc...
my city has 500.000 inhabitants andthe temperature is 30 degrees up but there`s no sea around! there are lots of bars on theavenues and beautiful ladies to watch, it`s a middle class city and it is into a place calledbrazilian sillicon valley!
In Rio de Janeiro - SugarLoaf, urban beaches, Crist, Parque da Ruínas, Petrópolis (It 1 hour away from rio and awonderful mountain town. Unforgatable), the discos and the saba schools. In february, Carnivalis the best tip. There are also good museums like the Brazilian historical museum and theModern Art meseum of Rio de Janeiro and of Niterói city.In Macaé - beaches, mountais. It's close to Buzios